Austria’s Jews had to travel a long way from repeated persecution and Joseph II’s Edict of Toleration to equal rights, which they were finally granted in 1867.

For one generation it appeared as though the economically successful Jewish population were to be integrated into Austrian society in the spirit of liberalism. This integration was frustrated when liberalism had to give way to two hostile forces - German Nationalism, which attacked it from within, and the Christian Social movement, which fought it from without. A new wave of anti-Semitism swept the country - and made itself also felt in Parliament..